Previously it was stated that the main means for controlling the ship’s handling is the steering device Ships rudder. The steering gear includes: a wheel with a tail, a steering gear and a steering gear. Steering and thruster Types of rudders, rudders used on ships can be classified.
Three signs: on the shape of the profile, the shape of the lateral projection of the location of the rudder feather area relative to the axis of rotation. e. along the contour of a figure formed by a horizontal plane when a rudder is cut, flat and shaped rudders are distinguished. Flat, or single-layer handlebars, due to their poor interaction with the main screw and the decrease in the speed of ships as a result, are hardly used at present.
Steering and thruster.Profiled, or double-layered, rudders have a streamlined shape, the contours of which are obtained during test. tannin models of the rudder’s rudder in a wind tunnel Depending on how the rudder’s feather area is located relative to its axis of rotation, conventional, balancing and semi-balance steering wheels are distinguished. A plain or sky lance steering wheel is distinguished by the fact that its axis of rotation practically coincides with its leading edge.
the rudders can be either single-layer or double-layer; the structure and attachment of a conventional single-layer (flat) rudder were shown in fig. 2 Two-layer sleek rudders have a hollow feather, formed by a double-sided skin, supported by two vertical and several horizontal apertures. In the diaphragm you. They make holes that facilitate the construction and at the same time allow the entire internal cavity to be filled with some light porous material that prevents water from entering the inside of the steering wheel. The upper and lower end diaphragms are made solid:Steering and thruster they serve to fix the casts in them, which form the upper horizontal flange (n ° 35, fig. 2)
The main types of steering
and lower pin. For both single-layer and double-layer rudders, the upper flange is designed to be connected. of the steering wheel by the balancer, and the lower pin for mounting the steering wheel in the stern-heel. Balancing steering wheels are simple (0), such as Simplex (c) and suspended (d). The axis of rotation of all balance steering wheels is shifted by some distance from the leading edge of the steering wheel to its middle, which significantly reduces the torque required to rotate the puller.
The most common is the simplex type steering wheel (rice, 100). The steering wheel rests on a removable axle 5 fixedly mounted in the heel 8 of the stern stem with the aid of a tapered joint 9. In the upper part, the axle is attached to the auxiliary joint 2 by means of the vertical shaft and the flange 3 and bolts. Inside the steering wheel 6 vertically there is a round pipe 10. In It houses a removable axle and cast or forged bushings (top-1110104 “lower 7), with the help of which the steering wheel rests on a removable axle. Sometimes the tube 10 is formed by two impermeable vertical diaphragms and a steering wheel liner. Steering wheel with baller 1 is connected — the horizontal flange is made, like a conventional wheel,
Until recently, the para-balance steering wheel (see fig. 99.0) was mainly used on twin-screw vessels. Nowadays, such rudders have become increasingly used on single “NTO transport vessels. Ship’s rudder A special feature of the semi-balance steering is that, like the balance one, it has a displacement of the axis of rotation from the leading edge to the middle of the rudder blade, but at the same time It is divided into two parts: balancing (lower) and unbalanced (upper) .
The lower support of these rudders is located at a height on the arm in the center of gravity of the rudder area, so it takes the main load, thanks to which the support is loaded on the rudder. , on is this position the lower support wheel has a streamlined shape directly and firmly connected with the ah. tershtevnem and set aft
Simplex type balance wheel
Steering gears. The steering gear serves to transfer the force from the steering gear to the steering rudder. The drive of the steering wheel is carried out through the tiller, which is stationary at the tail end. Depending on the type and location of the tiller, there are longitudinal – tiller, transversal – room and sector drives. “By the principle of operation, steering gears can be divided into a cable, mechanical, sector helical, hydraulic and electric assault.
The simplest is a longitudinal-tiller drive in which the tiller, located in the longitudinal direction, is used in combination with with a slider (fig. 101) or with storm rods. The steering wheel drive is used only on ships of small size, as when moving the tiller from point O to point O, the stratum appears slack and the steering wheel is shifted boards and the side will not correspond to the rotation of the handwheel .. The most common measure for eliminating the slack of the cable is to include a slider in the drive.
The transverse tiller, which forms the basis of the transverse – room of the drive, is a two-arm lever located across the vessel and -steering wheel. Ship’s rudder Often the transverse tiller is combined with screw fur. nizm rudder steering. In this case, it is called wines. Comotro drive or Davis drive. Such a drive is used independently in small vessels and as a reserve. lloro manual drive on large vessels Screw drive (fig. 103) consists of: transverse room. Pel 4, screw spindle 6,
right and left rectangular threads in working areas, sliders 1 and 3, thrusts 2 115, guides and handwheel 8 When the handwheel driving the spindle is rotated, the sliders converge or diverge by turning the tiller with the help of thrusters; when turning the tiller, the steering wheel is shifted to one or the other side. The main drawback of a screw drive is the rigidity of all its elements.
Even on small vessels it often leads to thread breakdowns. In the sector drive, the tiller is replaced by a sector, firmly seated !! tilted on the rudder stock and rotated with the help of a pinto, chain roller or gear transmission. The presence of a sector in the drive excludes the appearance of a weakness in the structured cable. However, in combination with a roller or tooth transmission, such a drive has several disadvantages: large distortions of the angle of rotation transmitted by the handwheel as a result of twisting of the rollers, backlash in their connections, frequent breakage of gear teeth, etc.
Transverse tiller screw drive
There is no shortage in the combined sector. 1 free 110 – tiller drive (Figure 104) in which the sector rotates on the stockpile, and the longitudinal tiller 2 is firmly connected to the bullet by means of the keys. Since the shock absorber springs work in compression, the connection between the sector and the tiller in the event of a spring breakage is not broken.
Transverse sector-tiller drive
Steering Mays, iny. Steering machines by the type of yllepri used! “are divided into manual, steam, electric hydraulic. Often used various combinations of these basic types: steam-hand, steam-hydraulic, manual hydraulic and electro ° hydraulic and Manual steering machines are installed on small self-propelled ships. they were combined with a drill by cable wiring or a roller transmission.
The design of these machines is quite simple and includes a steering bollard inside which the gear train (driving driven gear), a pull drum (with pieces rotor wiring) or sprockets at the chain drive) the whole system is driven by the wheel 1101 wheel, rotated with the hands of the steering wheel! oro with the help of simple steam steering gears. On modern ships, the steering gears are completely extruded by electric and hydraulic plunger rudder machines that facilitate and simplify ship control
Electric steering machines, widely spread on ships of the fleet of fleets, have the ability to reversing electric motors as rare as pyaenoro engines Along with the frequency of the request (up to 3000 rpm). Therefore, the performer inak electric motor is paired with a worm gear, which transmits torque to the torque 11a. significantly reduce the rotational speed of the oto drive. In addition to the Toro,, the self-braking worm pair of the epB electric motor (worm and worm wheel) when stopping ensures that the steering is stopped and the electric motor is controlled from the steering wheel steering wheel. Ship’s rudder When the button is pressed, pressing the button or the door
In the control 9, the motor is started by pressing the button of the corresponding side rotates in a certain direction until the button is released. Steering is remotely controlled, with the angle of deflection of the steering wheel corresponds to the deviation of the rudder position indicator in the steering wheel. Electric steering gears are manufactured to operate on both direct and alternating currents. Usually they are used with a torque range on a bullet from 6300 to 16 000 Nm, i.e. mainly for medium displacement vessels
Hydraulic drive of the rudder stock
Electro-hydraulic steering gears, installed on modern large ships and high-speed middle-ships, “are equipped with a hydraulic steering rudder gear (Fig. 105). When the water is located in the room, the ship is shipped force required for ero rotation. For this purpose, four (or two) hydraulic cylinders Z. are connected by means of two transverse 2 n two longitudinal 4 beams into one common block. Enta is produced by the feet of 1 cylinder 3 V c The cylinders 6 are located plungers moving along the axis of the cylinder under the pressure of oil, pivotally connected by means of pins 7 with a transverse tiller 8.
The room is fixed by means of dowels to the rudder 9 to reduce from lateral forces arising when tiller is rotated The plungers 6 have slides 5 sliding along the guiding planes of the longitudinal beams. When turning the tiller, its pins 7 move in the hinges 11 (SM.auze. A), which pivots 10 can be rotated in the holes of the forks. plunger rotate axis / – /. In this way, a free rotation of the tiller is ensured, and together with the steering wheel, the longitudinal movement of the plungers in the hydraulic cylinders of the drive The composition of the electro hydraulic steering gear In addition to the r11 drive A includes
units: variable-capacity oil electropumps of production B; mechanism C for controlling variable-displacement pumps; oil pipeline D with main valve box; tele motors G for hydraulic steering control from remote control posts: manual ( emergency) oil pump and rudder position indicator system (not shown), The device and principle of operation of electric pumps B of variable performance were considered earlier in 43 . pressurized to about 15 000 KH / M2 (150 Krc / CM2) D A drive cylinders hydraulic heskie
Scheme of electro-hydraulic steering machine
B ASTI FROM !! nya pump guide ring. In the indicated position (fig. 106), working oil through pipes 5 and 6 is pumped by a variable-capacity pump B to the main distribution box 7, and from it through pipes 4 8 is directed to two hydraulic cylinders 2 located diagonally. At this time, from another pair of cylinders, the oil is sucked off by a second variable-displacement pump.Steering and thruster. Under the pressure of the oil, the plungers 1 move along the axes of the cylinders, transferring forces to the trunnions 9 across the tiller 10 and turning the rudder baller 11.
Turning the steering wheel (in this case, to the starboard side) will occur until the thrust 3 returns the 11th guide ring of the variable output pump to the middle position. In this case, the oil supply to the r11 hydraulic cylinders will stop, and the steering wheel will be fixed in the predetermined position. Hydraulic G consists of two cylinders with pistons. Some 13 cylinders (transfer) are installed on the navigation bridge, the other (receiving) cylinder of the steering cavity of the cylinder is connected by pipeline, the whole system is filled with liquid — usually water with glycerin. The rotation of the handwheel is transmitted to the piston of the transfer cylinder, calling.
The displacement increases the pressure of the fluid to the piston of the receiving cylinder. As a result of this piston reception. The cylinder lloro moves by acting on systems of variable capacity pumps connected by a pipe. with the line working with an oil with a hydraulic drive ball. Lera . Thus, all the main components of the electro-hydraulic steering are waiting for a pipeline, which consists of working oil pipes, a telemotor control, lubricating oil and armature. Pipes of lubricating oil are lubricated at the hour. tyam steering gear V. the composition of the blade electro hydraulic e with to about th
Scheme vane electro-hydraulic steering machine
the steering gear (fig. 107, a) includes: a steering rack, with a steering wheel and a telemotor, pipeline 2, a stop valve 3,. variable speed pump 4 with electric motor 5, contactor 6 for starting the electric motor, a blade motor 7 and the main junction box 8 “The motor rotor (Fig. 107 b), fitted with blades, is directly connected to the rudder baller and its blades are located between not-movable sets.
In these cavities from pump 4 through channels 10 and annular gap 9, working fluid is supplied under pressure of 4500-5000 KI / M2 (45-50 Krc / CM2), which presses on the blades, creating the necessary torque to the ball. Leray. Turning the steering wheel to the right or to the left side depends on the direction of supply of the working fluid (oil) to the hydraulic motor.
The hydraulic motor is attached to the foundation of the ship base 11. Thrusters thrusters (PU) 11 an auxiliary steering element, which significantly improves the maneuverability of the vessel, especially at low speeds in the absence of travel (for example, when mooring the vessel) is more than 34, efficiently using Pu at a speed of about two to three nodes or less PUs are usually installed on ferries, passenger, oilfield fishing and research vessels.
Thrusters do not interoperate with the ship’s propeller to make an independent means of control. When placed in the hull of the ship, PUs are divided into built-in, retractable, taken out of the hull dimensions, and along the length of the ship, into bow and stern. Nasal tunnel-type PUs are currently most widely used on ships (Fig. 108). Characteristic for these PUYAV. Ships rudder The location of the screw (or propeller impeller) in the sleep is determined. dependent drive in a through-tunnel (pipe) of a straight or curved shape, made in the bow of the ship hull. When the screw is operated, the jet of outboard water is thrown to the right side of the left side, creating a jet emphasis on the hull of the ship. The direction of the jet is regulated by flaps.