Ship-lifting facilities.Classification of ship-lifting constructions and tendencies of their development
Vessel-lifting structures are called shore and floating engineering structures, designed to extract vessels from the water in order to perform technical work in their underwater part. Some types of these structures can be used to build ships (construction dock, launch dock) or to transport them (transport dock). Partial drainage and, in some cases, complete removal of small vessels from the water is also carried out by taps and caissons. non. in tones of this kind of simplest means All ship-raising structures can be divided into four groups: docks, floating docks, ship-lifts and combi.
Court of Nation ° Lifting Facilities The coastal docks are hydraulic structures in the form of a basina (camera), isolated by a gate from the water area. If the bottom of the chamber with the support device for the vessel lies below the water level in the water area, then this dock is called dry (Fig. 51a). If the vessel is placed on the side area of the chamber elevated above the water level ), then such a dock is called 11 al explicit (Fig. 51.0). Floating docks are special floating structures that take a vessel out of the water, maneuvering its own stock.
The buoyancy of a buoyant lok, which is an open one from the top of the structure, consists of 110 “two (sometimes one) towers. Fig. 51, e). The change in the floatability of these docks is achieved by filling
Fig. 51. Schemes of ship-raising structures: a – dry dock: About the loading dock; in U – shaped dock; 2 – L – shaped floating dock e . by fastening to the bank: a – box-shaped transport floating. whose dock; e – dock – uterus with dock – morrono; x – vertical sudopol. a small ship; 3 – boathouse; “-slip (dehumidification) of hull compartments
By appointment, the floating docks are divided into repair, intended for the repair of ships; doc uterus doc – 11011. in tones, which is a complex of additional structures: 11 W ere D !! floating docks designed to lift ships out of the water and transfer them to onshore repair sites; A plank of a station (mainly transport) a s Ship lifters are coastal structures that lift vessels from the water with lifting mechanisms. The vessel is lifted by a lnbo along a plane (inclined ship elevators, Fig. 51.3, u), or vertically (vertical ship elevators, Fig. 51, g). The inclined ship lift, on which the ship moves in the same direction on wheeled or roller carriages, is called s d rometal! m el l and n. The gom (hereinafter, we will simply call him Hellen). Elling, linked up with slipway repair platforms, arranged in such a way that the setting and descent of each vessel are made independently of other vessels, is called up with a linden tree. The inclined ship elevator, on which the vessel is transported by portage, on a sleigh or sled, is called Ellinti, slips and slides can be longitudinal (11 the lifting board coincides with the vessel’s diametral plane (direction lifting perpendicular to the bottom of the metral plane)
Combined ship-raising facilities include a dock or vertical ship-lift, and coastal repair sites The main characteristic of each ship-raising structure is the ship’s lift, defined by two criteria. riami: dock weight or dimensions of the ultimate vessel. The most common ship-raising structures include dry repair floating docks, slipways 11 slips. By 1971, according to classification societies, there were over 1000 dry, over 600 repair floating docks and about 1500 slip slings around the world. facilities: 1) construction of large dry docks up to 350-500 meters wide and up to 50-70 m wide; 2) construction of floating docks with a lifting force of up to 60,000 ton-force, up to 250 m long, with an internal width of up to 40-45 m; 3) construction of combined ship-raising facilities with a ship-carrying capacity of up to 3,000–5,000 tons by ticking ship-lifters; 4) upgrading the essence! osh docks by increasing their size, which will ensure the reception of modern courts; 5) increasing the level of armament, including from the top of the mecha- n automation of ship-raising facilities with a view to reducing the time needed to repair ships at the docks to ensure their energy supply. The process of repair In the Soviet Union there are ship-lifting facilities of all types. Floating docks and combined ship-raising structures for seagoing ships, as well as transverse slips on rivers, were especially developed.