Rotary engine.By the nature of the working fluid used, rotary engines can be divided into flood, wind, steam,hydrocarbon fuel, external and internal combustion. Of these, the main should be considered water, steam and internal combustion engines.
The utilization of these dvigatele historically sovpadala with defined production methods.
At all stages of the development of pre-capitalist society, the main source of mechanical energy was the muscular strength of a human or animal. Water and wind engines played a subordinate role, so at these stages of development of human society, it was difficult to expect fundamentally new engine designs compared to those adopted from ancient times. During the period of manufacture, these types of engines determined the energy base of the main industries. Since about the end of the 16th century, there has been a growing gap between hydropower capacity and the energy needs of growing production. At this time, along with the search for ways to use another type of energy, intensive work is carried out to improve the existing and create new designs of hydraulic machines, including rotary engines.
In the technical literature of 16th-17th centuries water has dvigateli are described in parallel. This suggests that their development was simultaneous, as evidenced by a significant number of identical designs of both types of engines .
By the 16th century, the designs of wind-driven rotary motors had reached a wide variety . The most typical of them are shown in figure (1). Compared with conventional wind turbines, the rotor ones had the following advantages : higher speed, lower complexity of designs, especially of transmission devices, compactness . The engine could be driven at any position of the shaft, which made it easier to operate. As a rule, the designs of wind rotor engines provided for the use of wind force in any direction . In the design shown in figure (1, a), this was achieved by moving the wall along the annular groove (1 , a) in the design shown in figure (1.6) using the guide vane ring.
The disadvantages of wind rotor engines in the first place include a very limited possibility of obtaining large capacities from a single installation. In addition , the actuation of the engine depended on the availability of wind and its strength. According to the literature, about the middle of the 18th century such engines in the industry almost never used.
Water rotary engines were used more widely in the period of development of manufactory production. From early reliable sources we can name the well-known work of Ramelli, ” where, along with the description of the design of a number of hydraulic devices of that time, given the scheme of two rotary pumps ( figure 2 , a , 6). The first of them ( picture . 2, a) can only be used for its intended purpose , the second ( figure 2.6 ) as a pump and as an engine. It is the earliest extant prototype of the so-called rotary pumps of the BNC type that are currently in use . The same engines in the literature of 17 – 18th centuries have been called the hermetic machine unlike, apparently, from open water wheels. In the 17th century hermetic machines were widely used mainly as auxiliary h used as pumps and as engines equally.
Description of designs and characteristics of reversible rotor engines are given in the works of Leopold, published in the early 18th century . Unfortunately, in these works there are no exact chronological data of creation of rotor engines and names of inventors are not always correctly named. From a variety of designs of water rotor engines, given in these works, we can distinguish the most characteristic .
For Leopoldo, blade engine S. Rivelli( figure 2.8 a ) is approximately related to the end of the 16th century had the name “Pressorem & Suetorem rot at ilem Wurtemberg cum Machina” In the hermetic casing , consisting of thick-walled profilirovannogo on the inner surface of the cylinder and two end covers, is an octagonal rotor. In the corners of the rotor faces there are eyelets for fixing the segmental blades of the Blade are spring-loaded, so that their free ends are constantly striving to move away from the rotor to the radial wall of the body.The special shape of the back provides a change in the distance between the free end of each blade and the rotating rotor, which changes the volume between the blade and the rotor . This allows the engine to be used as a pump. The reversibility of the engine is achieved by changing the direction of the water supply.
The invention transom engine Ruprecht ( Ruprecht , pattern . 2, 2), called Leopold “Der wasser Riegel Ruprecht – Kapse Machina”, applies roughly to mid-17 century . The device and its action is clear from the diagram and similarly to the device and operation of the engine Ramelli. This engine was the prototype of the fuel pumps. In particular, the pumping pump of the yaz – 204 engine has a similar design.
Gear engine Pappenheim (Machina Pappen . femiana, drawing . 2, a) is the first prototype of most modern gear oil pumps of internal combustion engines . The invention relates to the late 16th – early 17th centuries.
For these rotary engines are characterized by geometrically simple shapes of the body and the rotor, the absence of sealing elements, simple forms of rotor motion, the use of potential energy ( pressure drop ) of water to drive them and achieve reversibility change in the direction of water movement.
Compared with conventional water wheels, reversible rotor motors had greater compactness, increased speed, increased specific performance, simplicity of the device, fewer parts and the absence of complex transmission mechanisms. Their disadvantages included increased mechanical losses, the inability to obtain large capacities from a single installation, the local nature of use.
As a result of these shortcomings, the use of water rotor engines did not solve the energy problem, but undoubtedly played a positive role in the overall preparation of machine production due to the variety of new design forms of these engines, which had great viability. The creation of rotary water engines can be considered the beginning of the development of water turbines.
The draft engine D. Papin ( Fig . 2, e) developed in the second half of the 17th century, there were characteristic features of rotary engines and simultaneously water turbines.
To be continued…