Ship sanitary systems and special systems of tankers
Sanitary systems The seawater system, like the drinking and wash water system, is a domestic water supply system. Zabortnaya.tota is used for water irrigation, washing of toilet bowls, etc. Due to the aggressiveness of sea water, the pipelines of the system, diameters of which are 10-70 mm, are made of steel ovniki, copper, copper nickel, polyethylene lined steel pipes and pipes. It should be noted that polyethylene is a promising material for pipes and fittings of cold water supply, as it does not resist corrosion and maintains water quality. Rebar fittings. is made of bronze, light alloys of polyethylene. Fig. 183 is a diagram of the seawater system in which a pneumatic tank is used to maintain constant pressure in the water supply system. When the water is supplied to the tank 4 by a centrifugal pump 12 (or by a hand pump 14), the liquid level rises through the non-return valve 15, and the air pressure rises, filling a part of the volume in the upper part. Since in a pneumatic tank, which is filled through the shut-off valve 7 and the pipeline 8 with low pressure air,. . does not. a certain volume, then the air is compressed until the level of water in it, it does not rise to the upper limit. At this point, the manoelectric relay 9, the trigger Fig. System diagram – the seawater
at a certain pressure, will turn off the pump motor 11 through the power network 10. After that, as consumption is consumed, the water from the air tanker is pressurized by compressed air into the flow line 1 to the consumption points 6 until the water level in the air tanker drops to the lower limit; At this point, the electric relay will start the pump for filling with water. The water level in the pneumocysterium will start to rise to its upper limit position until it has filled its volumetric volume *, after which the electric relay will operate and the electric motor will turn off, l. Thus, during the period of water consumption from the upper to the lower level, the electric pump does not work. In the case of a large flow of water, the electric pump can operate on the main line in parallel with the tank truck. To switch off the centrifugal pump when switching to the water supply to the tanker truck by hand a. sauce 14, use the disconnection valves 13. In addition, th, the air tanker has a dispenser valve 3 and a drain valve 2 Behind the water level in the air tanker is observed over the water, the cossette. device. The pressure values at which the pump is switched on (the pump is switched off, is chosen so that the upper maximum pressure is easily provided by the pump. and 11, the lower, allowed to overcome the loss of pipelines during the supply of water. Usually, the upper pressure is equal to 3-5 kgf / cm2. When operating centrifugal pumps, it must be ensured that a certain pressure is maintained in the pneumatic tank at all times, at which the pump can be switched on in a timely manner if the water level drops to the lower limit and off. The water level has reached the upper limit. If the pressure in the pneumocysterium is below 1.5 kgf / cm2, the water supply to the individual remote objects may cease. since this pressure may not be sufficient to overcome the resistance in the pipeline. If the moments, on and off the pump do not match the water levels in the air! stubble, it is necessary to regulate the contacts of the mana of the electric pressure switch. After this, it is necessary to fill and empty the air tank several times (five to ten). At the same time, filling levels are marked on the water glass. The design and operation scheme of the RDK-57 pressure switch, often other than those specified in domestic water supply systems, are shown in Fig. 184, a and 184.6 The relay consists of two identical contact groups located in the same housing. One of these groups is triggered when reaching. the upper limit, the other at 4111 pressures of the maximum pressure. The sensitive element is the membrane 10, the clamp
throat 11 and nut 12 in body 1. This membrane is common to both contact groups. Each of the groups consists of a piston 2 of two pins 9, a cushion 13 of a lever 4 with a screw 3 of a micro switch 5, the Pillows are held by springs 7 located on a Siberian Crane – the rods are reinforced in the casing nyce 1. The cavity under the membrane communicates with a controlled reservoir (pivmocister) . The pressure force acts on the diaphragm 10 11, overcoming the resistance of the spring 7, moves the pistons “.2 upwards. Moving the pistons through the pins 9. cushions 13 n levers 4 from the screw mn 3 is transmitted to the buttons” MF1 kreperekno “qa with raex 6, the springs together) or different preliminary nuts: pain! 1H– the spring of the contact rpyntIH rns 184, the pressure switch RDK-57 of the upper limit pressure and the smaller – the spring of the lower limit pressure Thanks to this, the operation of the microswitches MP! and PGM occurs at different pressures. When the pressures e is in the range between the upper and lower limit values, the left piston 2 is raised to the upper position MHK p ° the low pressure switch MP1 has tripped, and the micro-switch PGM is still in the initial state.With the further increase of pressure, the left piston 2 is stationary since it rests on the upper edge of its gig, and the right moves upward, and when the pressure does not reach the upper limit value, it comes to the extreme upper position and switches the contacts of the PGM micro switch, turning off the current to the electric power, motor of the pump. When the pressure is lowered, the right piston 2 under the influence of its spring 7 moves downward. The left piston is still stationary, and when the pressure approaches its lower limit value, it starts to move downward, causing the switching of the contacts of the microswitch of the MP! the relay generates a pulse of pressure reduction to the lower limit closes the contacts to start the motor. Installation
order, change, preliminary, 11 the tension of the springs – 7 using simo from each other. For the initial setting of the RDK-57 relay operation, it is intended to operate in the range of the pressure relay for a particular control range. N nuts 6 are used, the upper and lower limits are adjusted independently. Also, screws 3 are used, which adjust the clearance between the lever, 4 and the button of the microswitch 5. the pressure switch is from 0.25 to 12 kgf / cu? The system of washing water is used for supplying cold water to wash basins, baths, showers, cabins, laundries and drench water should be clean, free of odors. The rate of its consumption, for example, for sea vessels of an unrestricted navigation area is 60 liters per person per day. Washing water is allowed to be stored in padded or shell tanks, providing protection from contamination and deterioration under the influence of heat. (similar to the seawater system), it is convenient and economically feasible to heat the washing water in a centralized heating unit, and then separately m pipelines to diversify it to consumers. Consider schemes for the wash water system shown in Fig. 185. Replenishment of the washing water heater.8 is provided by the air tanker 7 through the non-return valve 6. The automatic water tanker provides timely replenishment of its water from the spare tank with a pump about. As can be seen from the picture, the system has a compass. pump 4, which supplies water through the preheater to the cistern of washing wash water, temperature control. Hot water in steam heaters is produced by changing the amount of 1 heating steam supplied to it. The sensor of the temperature regulator 2 is installed at the outlet from the hot water tank, and its regulating cluster Fig. 185. – Scheme of the system of the washing pan 1._ at the inlet of rpeHoulerona – water: 1 – perya “cleaning valve,” 2 – perya. ra. With this switching on, the temperature of the circulation pump and the circulation pump are hot. Pump Increase the supply rpe. irreversible, valve; louero pair though and will cause enon notu; 6 -, 7 – air tanker, -8 – preheater significantly increase the volume of 34
water nepours in the preheater, but entering it into the roasting water tank does not cause a sharp increase in the temperature of the water in the latter. The tank cistern 3 facilitates the regulation of the hot water temperature and allows the use of direct and indirect regulators that maintain the temperature within the range of 60-70 ° C. The highest temperature regulators have been used for RPM RRL. the regulator is filled with about two-thirds of the liquid boiling at a low temperature.The regulator parameters are chosen so that the full stroke of the control valves occurs when the controlled temperature changes by 10 ° C (for example, measures from 60 to 70 ° C, 70 to 80 ° C 11 TD) The control valves of the RPD regulator are made for a word pressure of 10 kgf / cm2 and a nominal pass of 1, 1.5 and 2 inches. The immersed part of the thermoballop has a length 320 and a diameter of 22 mm.The length of the capillary tube is 3 m C11 of the drinking water is designed to preserve the reserves (at a rate of 100 liters per person per day) and to supply water to the washbasins, demountable cranes of the kitchen unit and other sources. The drinking water system has completely independent piping wires. Drinking water is stored in storage tanks, which must be at least two on the vessel. It is forbidden to store water in enclosure intercylinder tanks. Tanks of airborne or drinking water are covered with cement “milk”, full of ethylene film, 9inovine paints or other protective coatings according to GOST. Drinking water must meet the requirements of 2874-54, roorganizmov. If drinking water is to be used as a drinking water from a desalination plant, it is necessary to provide devices that allow water to be of quality, free from harmful salts and pathogenic substances, which are limited by the standard. In the absence of such devices, special tanks should be provided, the volume of which is determined by calculating the consumption of at least 30 liters of human per day, as well as a system for supplying this water to, cooking, washing dishes in medical premises. In this case, a separate system of washing water for bathrooms, showers and washrooms should be installed. Washing water is to be disinfected. The shelf life of water in tanks in the summer is limited to five days, so the drinking water system must be equipped with a disinfecting (disinfecting) installation. and Fig. 186 is a schematic diagram of a drinking water system. Maintenance of the required pressure in the system is ensured by the “Harmonized sanitary and domestic rules for maritime transport of 435 ships (requirements for structures and devices)” introduced by the Minister of the Navy from January 1, 1970.
plic. 186. Schematic diagram of the drinking water system: 1 – shut-off valve, 2 filling tank; 3 – a three-way valve. with a T – shaped plug; 4 – the pipeline of drinking water intake into spare tanks from the shore, dock or other vessel; 5 – hub. deck deck for fixing the flexible bed: 6 – air tube jib; 7 – non-return valve – shut-off: 8 – pump; 9 – compressed air system pipe court! ta; 10 – en evm ° cistern; 11 – water-measuring glass; 12 – manometer; 13 – the safety valve; 14 – Mart acral pipeline of the drinking water system; 15, 16, 17 – pipelines, I supply not drinking water to individual groups of consumers; 18 – date and to level gauge; 19 – pipe from the desalination plant: 20 – bactericidal apparatus
using a pump and a pneumatic pump. In the hours most in. The pump runs almost continuously, and the rest of the time the consumers receive water from the monster pi, which, as it is emptied, is filled with a pump, the action is switched on by the considered RDK-57 relay. The volume is set. The capacity of tankers on vessels is 2000-3000 liters. The drinking water is supplied with air pipes that are led above the bulkhead deck and equipped with heads preventing the splash of waves from entering the fresh water. Since the use of footstocks in fresh water tanks is forbidden, level gauges with remote indicators and water-measuring glasses are used for water measurements. Water works. steel galvanized pipes; The internal diameter of the master pipes reaches a rader of 50-100 mm, and the processes that supply water to individual consumers are -10-32 mm. Steel or bronze system armature The following methods of water disinfection are used on vessels of the marine fleet: chlorination, treatment with silver ions
irradiation with ultraviolet rays of bactericidal lamps, ozonization 11 nodirovanne The most common method is chlorination However, the formation of chlorine specific odors and tastes causes the use of other, more progressive methods of eliminating bacteria. In recent years, water ions of silver. It provides reliable disinfection and preservation of water for a long time. The most common method of ionizing water with silver is electrochemical. It was developed in 1930 r. L. A. Kul. sk. The concentration of silver ions possessing bactericidal properties is provided by salts and oxides formed on the surface of the metal. Special devices – ionizers ensure the production of silver solutions by anodic dissolution of metal. A number of vessels of the “Slavyansk” and “Poltava” type are equipped with domestic-produced ionizers of the LK-28 (119M-50) pressure type of marine design. An electrolytic solution with a silver content of 0.05-0.5 mg / l is used for water treatment. Dopu. The concentration of silver in the solution for drinking water is no more than 0.05. Therefore, before serving the user, the drinking water is desperate. To this end, a seriefilter FS-3 and two protective weight-collecting filters FEV-1.5 were installed in series with the ionator on the ships. The dosage of the diluted silver is based on the time based on the indications, the ammeter. On ships of the Mikhail Kalinin type, Ivan Franko sets the GDR production units. The ionator is a steel enameled inner vessel with a plastic lid on which two silver plates are fixed at a distance of 8-10 mm. The voltage to the plates is fed through two contact pins. The ionator operates from a current of 150 mA at a silver concentration of 0.1 mg / l and a capacity of a drinking water pump of 4 m3 / h. The dosage of the amount of silver injected into the liquid is determined by the ammeter readings. The current is regulated by means of a potentiometer. meter On passenger liners such as “Ivan Franko” ionator mouth. It is placed on a straight line of drinking water, which is ionized by electrolytic silver solution directly during bunkering. Thus, bacteria purified from bacteria enter the tanks and tanks. Treatment of drinking water with silver ions does not violate its organoleptic properties – taste, odor and transparency. Drinking water containing 0.2-0.5-ela of silver can be stored for more than 6 months, and up to 1 mg / l for 12 months. Comparing the various treatment schemes for potable water with silver, it should be noted that the most successful is the domestic
The first scheme with the LC-28 ionators. It provides a reliable obez for infestation at a high concentration of silver isotopes and deserption. The decontaminating effect of bactericidal lamps, which are isotopes made of glass, is based on the property of this material to pass ultraviolet rays. The water after the pump flows through the tanks with a quartz casing in which the tank is installed. Tubular and drain systems constitute the ship’s channel system. The removal of previously disinfected fecal and waste water is carried out directly overboard only if the vessel is in the open sea, no closer than 25 km from the coastline When finding ships ports, canals and coastal paradise. Fecal and waste water must not be discharged overboard, but concentrated in special sewage (dirty) tanks, emptied into shore tanks and rp jail barges. In dirty tanks, sewage is disinfected with chemicals and steaming. Fecal and waste waters enter gravity tanks by gravity. On rns. 187 shows the scheme of the fan system with the washing of the toilet bowls from the flushing tanks or directly from the seawater pipeline. With the last washing method for entering the appliance, it is necessary to press the foot on the pedal 14, which activates the valve. Fecal waters are collected in tank 20 where they are disinfected , are clarified, and when the upper limit level is reached, they are removed from it by compressed air entering the pipeline 19 when the valve 16 is opened. To discharge the air that the tank was blown through, use the pipeline m 19, which, when the valve 17 is opened, allows air to pass through the reduction. valve 10 Then, air with normal pressure through pipe 9 passes through a filter that absorbs odors. Removal of fecal water from a dirty tank is often performed by a fecal pump or a water jet ejector. Fig. 188 is a diagram of the automatic removal of wastewater from a dirty tank. The automatic deletion system includes level sensors installed in a dirty tank, starting devices of a faecal pump or a water jet pump of a jet ejector. In the scheme with a faecal pump (Figure 188, a) or with a water jet ejector (Figures 188, 6), when the upper limit level reaches the “dirty cistern turn 2”, relay 3 applies a pulse 11a to start the pump 5, and when the level of waste the water will fall to the lower limit, relay 1 stops the pump.The main sewage pipes (as well as pipes from the hogs) must be located within the waterproofed area
Fig. 187. Schematic diagram of the fan system: 1, 21, 24 clinches 2 6, 16.17, 23 – shutoff valves: 3 – filter. odor absorber; 4, 10, 11 – reducing valves; 5 – a flushing tank: 7 – a manometer; 8 – the pipeline of the compressed air system, the escape of compressed air from the fecal cistern. – a three-way crane; 13 – toilet bowl; 14 – the pedal of the control of the flush valve; 15 – compressed air line for purging. NNA is fecal, cisterns; 18 – Fanovid pipeline: 19 – compressed air supply pipeline for blowing FanovoA tanks, used also for bleeding compressed air after venting the tank: 20 – faecal cistern; 22 – the branch pipe of the nest. us; 12 feet overboard when the fecal tank is purged with compressed air
Scheme of automatic removal of dirty water from the waste tank: fecal pump 6 water jet ejector; 1 – sensor of the lower level; fecal tank: 3 – upper level sensor; 4 – starter motor pump; 5 – the pump; 6 – clapping; 7 – water jet ejector
the center of the compartment. The passage of these pipes through watertight bulkheads from rooms located below the limit line of immersion is allowed in exceptional cases: at the same time, clinkers with control above the bulkhead deck must be installed on the bulkheads. The installation of fan tubes through fuel oil tanks is allowed in peftenpros. These are gates or tunnels that provide access to pipes and fittings. Moryt cargo and sewage pipes in Moryt cargo holds can only be laid in watertight enclosures of a steel structure with a thickness of at least 3 mm. The sewage system serves for discharging used water from laundry, laundry, buffets, galley, e. To remove water from the decks, scupper pipes are used.