Anchor mechanisms.The following anchor mechanisms are used on sea vessels: anchors (half-brushes) anchor or anchor. mooring spiers and anchor – mooring winches. The anchor mechanisms serve to release the anchor and the anchor chain when the ship is anchored; anchoring the anchorage during anchorage; Anchoring – pulling the ship to the anchor, selecting the chain and anchor and pulling the anchor into the vessel; mooring operations, if there are no specially provided mechanisms for these purposes. The main element of any anchor mechanism working with the purpose is a chain cam drum – an asterisk. The horizontal position of the axis of the sprocket is peculiar to the bracelets, the vertical position to the spiers. For some modern ships (for a number of reasons, conventional windlasses or spiers are not advisable, therefore, anchor mooring winches are installed on such vessels.) The winches are also installed with the combined ropes (for a deep-water parking). According to the speed of chain selection, the anchor mechanisms are divided into three groups: 1 ) with a normal selection speed (0.17 m / s); 2) with an increased selection speed (not less than 0.4 m / s 3) with reduced selection speed (less than 0.12 m / s). The anchor mechanisms of most maritime transport vessels belong to the first group. Anchor mechanisms of the second group are installed on ships where fast anchoring is required. The anchoring time of inland vessels is acceptable even at reduced rope picking speeds. The brashpils are designed to serve simultaneously the chains of the left and starboard sides. More recently, segregated half-ospiles (brashpils with a single chain chain), displaced to the corresponding sides, began to be applied to large tonnage vessels. Floor harnesses are also used on katam wounds. Brashtili and half-ospils do not occupy interior spaces that can be used for various storerooms
General view of the anchor – mooring windlass electric motor; 2 – sprocket wheel drive: 3 – clutch trigger actuator; 4 – reduction gear: 5 – foundation frame; 6 – Turrets 7 – bearings rpy3oboro shaft; 8 – chain sprockets.
Single-deck anchors0-10th spire. 1 bracket – bumper; 2 – cam clutch: 3 – Turatka: f – nyCTo- rea th naa; S – the flywheel of the sprocket: 6 -shubat coupling: 7 – naay61 lda glass; 8 asterisk 94 tape brakes: 10 – column of the brake brake: // – махопик; 12 – byte ri Teali; 13 – worm gear: If – ncea an additional gear. In addition, the installation of windlasses on the deck greatly simplifies their maintenance, inspection and repair, and reduces the number of servicemen. The windlasses provide separate operation of the left and star star wheels. The use of friction clutches makes it possible to soften shock loads and to ensure a smooth start of the sprockets. The anchor yield is produced by its own mass and the mass of the chain. The speed is controlled with the help of a belt brake. The windlass (Fig. 16.28) consists of an engine, a gearbox, and chain sprockets and wheels placed on the load shaft. The asterisks sit on the shaft freely and can only rotate while the engine is running when they are connected to the shaft special cam clutches. The pups sit on the load or intermediate shaft rigidly and always rotate with the engine on. Each sprocket is equipped with a shoe, with a belt brake. With increasing vessel sizes, it is not possible to rationally design an anchor device with windlasses. The spire is designed to work only for one purpose. The mechanism of the spire is usually divided into two parts, one of which consists of an asterisk and moorings! oro drum, is
Asterisks of the anchor mechanisms of the deck, and drus, including the gearbox and the engine, underneath the deck. The vertical axis of the sprocket allows one to vary in the horizontal plane on the direction of chain motion; along with a good appearance. “This is an important advantage of the spire, which is an important advantage of the spire, and the low position of the center of gravity should also be attributed to a much simpler construction of foundations, a relatively small mass, and often anchor mooring mechanisms in one anchor-moored Figure 16.29 shows the spire whose engine is anchored under the deck. The anchor winches, including the sprocket and mooring drum, are increasingly used on They have a high efficiency factor of a lower mass and safety in operation.For floating cranes, dredging equipment, floating drilling rigs, etc., anchor and mooring winches are used, on which a shilindrical mooring drum and an anchor sprocket are placed on the same frame , having a common grinding shaft and a drive from one engine. On ships with a deep-water anchor device, the rope is selected using an anchor deep-water winch having a cylindrical drum. Sometimes two anchor mechanisms are put on such vessels: a conventional windlass (spire) for standing at copious depths and a deep-water anchor winch. The asterisk (Figure 16.30) is one of the most important parts of any anchor mechanism. Reliable movement of the chain is achieved only when at least two projections of the sprocket are in meshing with the target. This is achieved by increasing the angle of the asterisk to the number of teeth. Spiers with a large angle of coverage (up to 180 °) use sprockets with four teeth, for windlasses yr0 of coverage is approximately 130 °, the number of teeth increases to five, six, RT teeth are separated by a groove in which the links are placed. oriented perpendicular to the driven links.
As the sprocket rotates, the cams abut against the driven lights and move the chain. The main mode of operation of the anchor – mooring mechanism is pulling the vessel to the anchor, which is 60-80% of the total time of removal of the vessel from anchorage, reaching 25_30 min. On the basis of this, the load on the chain corresponding to this mode is taken as the nominal pulling force of the anchor to the asterisk. For such a load, electrowaves are selected. The author. The power of the drive motor of the anchor mechanism should ensure the selection of one anchor chain together with the anchor at an average speed of at least 9 m / min with a pull BOX force on the sprocket not less than required by Register Rules. TO TOO Speed perp npi He 30H According to the type of drive, the mechanisms are divided into manual, steam , elect. trical and r11 driving. Manual npu800 retained its own value only on some old ships, 110 as an auxiliary reserve. It is used on small ships for inland vessels for a long time. For a long time, a steam drive was used mainly on vessels, capable of withstanding large overloads and allowing the operator to operate in an explosive zone. The main disadvantages of this drive were: 1O-the complexity of the transfer of steam to the place of consumption and pain. losses in steam pipelines; – the necessity of preheating the entire system. which significantly delays the start-up of mechanisms, especially during the seasons: – the difficulty of smooth speed control; Necessity !! It is possible to provide special boilers for steam production on ships with internal traction driers. Because of these drawbacks, the npnstenenie naponoro drive has significantly decreased. Since the steam drive explosion is safe, ero is widely used only on oil ships. Steamers also use steam to preheat oil products and strip the tanks. The electric drive has the following advantages over the others – the types of drives: constant ror ° to work: high efficiency; insignificant loss of energy during its transfer by deck mechanisms If an electric one is chosen for anchor mechanisms. wave, then you should think on what current the op will work – na constant or variable. Speed regulation in DC electric motors is very simple, and they can operate in different modes with high efficiency.