Sea tugs. Modern tugboats perform a large number of different operations: porting vessels to the port from the port, towing cargo barges of lighters, moving ships inside the harbor area, rescue operations, towing of floating cranes and docks, etc. Accordingly, lifeguards, linear, many oceanic port and raid tugboats. The most important characteristics of tugboats are propulsion and maneuverability. When designing vessels of this class, it is first of all necessary to ensure the efficient operation of the tug with WHO. A very serious problem is the stability of the tugboats, both when towing, and at free travel. when the greater part of the body is exposed 13 behind the formation of a depression between the nasal and stern groups of the waves. In addition to the causes of loss of stability common to all vessels, such as the lateral effects of wind and wave, icing, roll during circulation, the passing wave, etc., towing vessels may tip over as a result of the force exerted by the tow line, directed at some angle of the diametric plane. Such a situation may arise in case of unsuccessful maneuvering and uncoordinated actions of the participating vessels in the towing operation
Towing and mooring device of the ocean tug 1-soft fender: 2 pulling hook with folding rods; 3 the key is a tugboat but-mooring: 4 arch tow: 5 a private bar: 6 битенг onboard. 7-bit towing (aft): 8 winch towing automatic 9 tow rope: 10 towing: 11 towbar limiter; 12 the device for the remote recoil of the tow rope: 13 -Kipovaya rod with the label of two processes: 14 -knecht of the tie-rod pTovny, 15 -viewer; 16 -chip with roulses: nasal bitier: 18 rope tow-mooring: 19 tow arc: 20 rope-conductor 21 spire mooring 22 necks for earrings: 23 overlaid sheet
Great attention should be paid to the development of tugs during the design of tugs. This problem is extremely complicated, especially if we take into account the great variety of operating modes of the tug. When calculating the required tug’s capacity, it is necessary to know the Basic elements of typical vessels of the formulations for which the ship is designed, the approximate speed of bookings of typical vessels and convoys, and data on the navigation area. In modern tugs, vises in the nozzles provide a practically constant ratio between the stop and the power of the main power plant , equal to 0.01 0.015 t / l. from. However, the nozzle sharply worsens the operation of the rudder in the reverse direction. When determining the attachment point of the tow rope, one should strive to reduce the effect of the rope tension on the mast tug’s qualities. For example, when fastening the cable in the stern, the tug of the tug will be hampered by the strength of the IATATANGE of the Rope. To reduce the moment, you need to mix the fixing point to the center of gravity. But the requirement of stability of the tug on the course does not allow to completely combine the anchorage point of the beech rope with the center of gravity of the vessel, on modern beech fear its distance is taken equal to 10% of the vessel’s length
The fenders of the axleboxes: a usual: b rubber. 1 core 2-fill; 3 canvas bag, 4 braid.
In tows, the towing device includes the following elements: tow ropes, ropes, towing racks, bitim, hocks, arches, onboard limiters, standard and portable fenders, winches winches, location and details of the mechanisms of the towing device of the ocean tugboat is shown in from amortization properties and durability of fenders in my opinion, the success of operations performed by tugboats. The main role is played by the forage stern permanent fenders. The usual fender is a muffin case filled with rubber or some other elastic non-absorbent material. A strong bond is a steel wire core. The fender is covered with a steel or hemp braid. In Fig. shows typical designs of conventional and rubber towing fenders, anchorages to the tug.